Skin ageing is caused by two main processes; intrinsic and extrinsic. They both contribute to the visible signs you may see on your skin, such as fine lines, wrinkles, loss of firmness, and discolouration.
- Intrinsic Ageing
Intrinsic ageing, also known as chronological or natural ageing, is largely driven by genetics, and is the natural process that takes place within the body regardless of outside influences. The visible signs appear most commonly as dry skin, wrinkles, loss of firmness, and increased pore size. At around 25, collagen production starts to fall resulting in skin becoming thinner and more fragile as the years pass. Additionally, the skin’s exfoliation process decreases, causing dead skin cells to accumulate and stick together for longer periods of time. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047276/
In the thirties and forties skin suffers from the effects of advanced glycation end product (AGE's) caused when collagen and elastin fibres gradually break, thicken, stiffen, clump together, and lose their elasticity making the skin appear duller and less plump.
Finally, in the fifties, skin becomes dry because the sebaceous (oil) glands produce less oil. In women, menopause causes a decrease in oestrogen levels, leaving the skin drier, thinner and less toned.
- Extrinsic Ageing
The second cause of the visible signs of ageing is known as extrinsic ageing and occurs as a result of environmental factors such as sun exposure, pollution and smoking. Ultraviolet radiation in particular results in premature skin ageing, also referred to as extrinsic skin ageing or photo ageing, causing in large part ageing-associated changes in sun-exposed areas. Intrinsic and extrinsic aging share several molecular similarities despite morphological and pathophysiological differences. The formation of reactive oxygen species and the induction of metalloproteinases reflect central aspects of skin ageing. Accumulation of fragmented collagen fibrils prevents neocollagenesis and accounts for further degradation of extracellular matrix by means of positive feedback regulation. The importance of extrinsic factors in skin ageing and the detection of its mechanisms has given rise to development of various therapeutic and preventive strategies. While there are many external factors that contribute to skin ageing, research has shown UV and pollution to be primary causes. Both of these atmospheric factors create free radicals that ‘eat away’ at skin’s collagen and elastin, and reduce healthy cell turnover, resulting in skin roughness, wrinkling, and sagging. Persistent or constant exposure to the sun’s rays also affects skin’s natural production of melanin causing discolouration, most commonly found on the face, neck, chest, arms, and hands. Unlike intrinsic ageing, it can be controlled to an extent as it is a result of external factors.
How to care for ageing skin
A good anti-ageing skincare routine can make a huge difference to how the skin ages. Protection from the sun and pollution are key first steps to battle extrinsic ageing. Regular cleansing both in the morning and evening will help to shift the effects of pollution and encourage the skin to shed dead skin cells. Using a topical vitamin C antioxidant serum and a sunscreen every morning helps prevent and protect skin from direct UV damage as well as damaging free radicals that cause premature skin ageing. Anti-ageing skincare products can also be incorporated into your routine to help improve the appearance of existing signs of ageing, such as fine lines, wrinkles, skin discolouration, dehydration, loss of elasticity, and more. For optimal effectiveness, a SkinCeuticals skincare professional can create a customised anti-ageing regimen based on your skin’s needs and your goals.
Anti-ageing skincare routine
Vitamin C is one of the most effective and extensively studied antioxidants available in skincare today, it is favoured by skincare professionals for its preventative and anti-ageing benefits on skin. However, there are many different forms of vitamin C. For optimal free-radical protection, look for pure ascorbic acid (l-ascorbic acid) on the ingredient label. In addition to neutralising free radicals and preventing premature ageing, l-ascorbic acid has anti-ageing benefits that include improving the appearance of wrinkles and loss of firmness. Additional antioxidants that also provide prevention against premature ageing and anti-ageing benefits are ferulic acid, vitamin E (in its alpha-tocopherol form), phloretin, and resveratrol.
- Cleanse/Tone - Gentle Cleanser and Equalizing Toner/ twice weekly use Glycolic wash or Simply clean.
- Prevent - C E Ferulic, or Phloretin depending on skin type.
C E Ferulic contains concentrated vitamin C, strengthens the skin against environmental aggressors, which can damage the skin. It helps to reduce the appearance of visible signs of photodamage such as fine lines and wrinkles. When you pair vitamin E with vitamin C, the latter becomes four times more effective.
Phloretin CF - Extracted from apples and apple root bark, a newer antioxidant which inhibits the formation of the substances (MMPs) that break down collagen and also enhances penetration. It has a particular role in reducing pigmentation.
- Correct - H.A. Intensifier
A multi-functional corrective serum proven to improve the appearance of skin plumpness, firmness and texture by amplifying skin’s Hyaluronic Acid content.
- Hydrate - Triple Lipid Restore 2:4:2
Formulated with an optimal concentration of lipids: 2% pure ceramides, 4% natural cholesterol and 2% fatty acids, this moisturising cream has been scientifically proven to improve the visible appearance of skin smoothness, laxity, pores and overall radiance. Also helps with skin barrier repair.
- Protect - Ultra Facial Defence SPF 50
This high factor sunscreen helps to protect against the visible signs of photo ageing and environmental damage.