Skin is a living organ and undergoes significant changes during a person’s lifetime: from the delicate skin of a new-born baby, through the teenage years when some are acne-prone, to the wrinkles of later life. Each stage has its own demands and skin care should reflect these changing needs. Choosing appropriate products to cleanse, protect, nourish and repair skin at each of these stages will help to keep it healthy and ensure that your skin looks and feels its natural best, whatever your age.
How is skin different at each age and stage?Baby skin
A baby’s skin is 20% to 30% thinner than a grown-up’s skin. It has the same number of layers but each layer is considerably thinner, making it especially delicate and sensitive.
Babies have lower skin pigmentation and difficulty regulating their body temperature. The outermost layer of the epidermis (the horny layer) is particularly thin, and the cells are less tightly packed than in adult skin. Sweat and sebaceous glands are also less active and so skin’s hydrolipid film is relatively weak. This means that the barrier function is impaired and baby skin is:
- less resistant
- especially sensitive to chemical, physical and microbial influences
- prone to drying out
- more sensitive to UV
- Sensitivity to UV is further enhanced by the fact that babies also have low skin pigmentation. Melanocytes (the cells responsible for melanin production) are present, but less active and so babies should be kept out of the sun.
Babies also have more difficulty regulating their body temperature than adults.
This is because:
- the surface area of their body is relatively large
- their sweat glands are less active
- their skin circulation is still quite slow to adapt
- It is important that adults are mindful of this and monitor and control the temperature of their environment for them.
Read more about baby skin, the conditions that it is prone to and how to care for it in baby and children’s skin.
Source: Pediatric Dermatology 27(2):125-31, October 2009.
- By the age of four, skin has matured slightly but is still very sensitive.
- By the age of four, skin and its appendages (such as hair, nails and glands) are a little bit more mature. However, children’s skin is still thinner and has less pigmentation than adult skin. Because these self-protection mechanisms are less developed, young skin is particularly sensitive to UV radiation.
- By the age of 12, the structure and function of a child’s skin corresponds to that of an adult.
The teenage years
- Hormonal changes can cause temporary skin irregularities. The hormonal changes of puberty can have dramatic effects on skin – particularly on the face, shoulders, chest and back.
- Increased sebum production and disturbed corneocyte shedding can lead to skin becoming oily and acne prone. This usually disappears as the teenager matures although for some, especially women, acne can go on into middle age and beyond.
- The first signs of ageing normally become visible from the age of 30.
- Genetics, lifestyle, and environment will determine the stage at which the epidermis and the dermis start to thin but, from around the age of 25, the first signs of ageing may appear, normally in the form of fine lines.
- When skin starts to thin, its barrier function and its natural protection against UV also gradually reduce.
- Collagen mass and flexibility also begin to deplete at a rate of approximately 1% a year.
During your 30s
- As skin matures, moisture and elasticity reduce and wrinkles form.
- Skin’s barrier function weakens
- The metabolic processes of the cells begin to slow down
- Skin moisture loss increases as skin produces less Hyaluronic Acid and existing Hyaluronic Acid starts to degrade.
- Collagen continues to degrade at 1% a year and more fine lines and wrinkles form.
40's to 50's
Wrinkles deepen as we age.
A decrease in the development of blood vessels can make skin less radiant.
Over the next few decades skin structure gradually changes:
The ordered arrangement of the individual layers of the epidermis is lost. Fewer cells are formed, existing cells shrink, and the top layers of skin become thinner. This can lead to:
- an increase in roughness and dryness
- an increase in fine lines and wrinkles
- areas of hyperpigmentation (known as age spots)
- impaired wound healing and an increased risk of skin infection
Connective tissues in the middle layer of skin lose their fibrous structure and water-binding ability and start to degenerate. This leads to:
a loss of volume and a noticeable change in the contours of facial skin
the development of deep wrinkles.
There is also a gradual decrease in micro-circulation in the dermis. The dermis provides nutrients to the epidermis so, without nourishment, both layers and the connections between them become thinner and flatter, resulting in the loss of elasticity common in post-menopausal women. Reduced blood flow also causes a loss of radiance. Skin can appear duller, and some broken capillaries may appear.
The lower layer of fatty tissue gradually reduces which also contributes to the loss of volume that can lead to deep wrinkles. Skin energy is also reduced, and skin becomes less resilient to pressure.
60s & 70s
- Mature skin is likely to be more sensitive to UV
- Skin infection can increase with age due to a reduced immune function.
During your 60s and 70s:
- The skin’s natural ability to produce lipids decreases which, along with the continued decline in Hyaluronic Acid and collagen production, results in dryness, dehydration, and deep wrinkles.
- Skin regeneration slows down, and it becomes increasingly thin resulting in a loss of elasticity. Wound healing is also impaired.
- UV sensitivity increases and skin is prone to hyperpigmentation (e.g., age spots).
- From the late 70s onwards, skin’s immune function has reduced, making it more susceptible to infection.